India is heading toward development and industrialization at a fast pace. Many Indian cities have infrastructure at par with international standards. The concept of smart cities is developing backward areas to transform them into high tech and ecofriendly cities. Many projects are emerging and running, while many have been proposed and completed, both by the government as well as private bodies to transform Indian cities into industrial areas to live in. While this heads India to be a developed nation, it also deprives Indian land of its exhaustible and much needed natural resources. The inclination of government toward industrialization is losing its focus from providing a good quality of life to its residents, which is falling below the set standards. Gurgaon is an example of one of the cities which has failed to match up with the expectations of its inhabitants in terms of power and water supply and easy connectivity. This is when the concept of Liveability comes into picture as a lesson to authorities that an optimal city planning is one having a balance of development along with sustainability.
The framework of liveability index is inspired from the renowned diamond model laid down by Michael E. Porter. The model generates overall liveability index by taking eight factors into account. These factors include demographic, health and medical standards, education, safety, housing option, socio-cultural-natural environment, economic environment and planned environment. These factors are further bifurcated into 20 quantitative sub factors.
Thus, liveability is the capacity of a city to provide favorable living conditions to its residents, based on economical, physical, natural and environmental factors. A liveability index is calculated for 50 cities annually, based on the level of above mentioned factors prevailing in those cities. All the eight factors along with their 20 sub factors and data indicators make 300 elements that measure the liveability of a city. 50 cities are ranked on liveability making the 1st one the most liveable city in India. These rankings affect the development, population and growth of the cities. A higher rank ensures an overall wellbeing of the city. The top 5 liveable cities in India according to the liveability index are listed below!
Mumbai has been the most liveable city in India in 2013 as well as 2014. It had a high score of 91.17 on the demographic pillar followed by Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Chennai, in 2013. It was ranked third on the Education Pillar after Delhi and Chennai. However, it went ahead of Chennai and Delhi on educational front in 2014. A runner up in health pillar, it dropped its rank in the safety pillar to as low as 48 out of 50. Despite being extremely low in socio-cultural-natural pillar and housing pillar, Mumbai was awarded the title of most liveable city of India because of a high score on Economic environment pillar.
Despite having the highest score on educational pillar, health and medical standards pillar and economic environment pillar, Delhi bottomed the top 5 best cities to live in 2013. However, in 2014, it jumped to the third position, leaving Bengaluru and Hyderabad behind.
It has been the second best place to live in India both in 2013 and in 2014. It provides good housing options and safety to its inhabitants. With an overall score of 64.194 in 2013, it has been in top 5 positions for most of the pillars but lost score to socio-cultural-natural environment and economic pillars.
Hyderabad slipped from 3rd position in 2013 to 5th position in 2014 mainly because of lack in housing facilities and a low rank on socio-cultural-natural pillar. However, according to Mercer’s Quality of Living Report 2015, Hyderabad is ranked as number one liveable city in India and has secured the 138th position globally. Proximity from Rajiv Gandhi International Airport and improved options for international schools are among many factors that have improved Hyderabad’s ranking globally.
Bengaluru has secured a consistent 4th position in the liveability index. Good on demographic and educational front and having a sound economic and planned environment, Bengaluru had scored low in all the other pillars. However, according to the 2016 Location Ratings for Expatriates conducted by ECA International, Bengaluru was ranked the most liveable place in India for expatriates. It has been ranked 34th in Asia and 171st in the world.
These 5 cities keep on shuffling their positions with each other every year in the liveability index but are certainly the best 5 cities in India. Kota, Faridabad, Kanpur, Asansol and Patna have been ranked the worst five cities to live in India, according to the Liveability Index, 2014.